As long as the mic is connected with the correct polarity you should get something if the processor samples the input at the right time. Depending on what your trying to detect some additional circuitry may be benificial.
If you want to sample sound then some amplification may be necessary.
I tried this circuit, but no luck.. :-)
what I really would like to do, is to "read" an analog value according to the sound detected by the microphone..
There is also something called acoustic triangulation. Which isnt really using a single microphone as a sensor, but using multiple microphones to detect things. I stumbled upon this extremely interesting write up, very informative, very intelligent, very long, very easy to understand. Maybe it could help you:
I didn't know, myself, that so much was involved in making one of these guys.